Kustomize Components

Kustomize components guide

As of v3.7.0 Kustomize supports a special type of kustomization that allows one to define reusable pieces of configuration logic that can be included from multiple overlays.

Components come in handy when dealing with applications that support multiple optional features and you wish to enable only a subset of them in different overlays, i.e., different features for different environments or audiences.

For more details regarding this feature you can read the Kustomize Components KEP.

Use case

Suppose you’ve written a very simple Web application:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: example
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: example
        image: example:1.0

You want to deploy a community edition of this application as SaaS, so you add support for persistence (e.g. an external database), and bot detection (e.g. Google reCAPTCHA).

You’ve now attracted enterprise customers who want to deploy it on-premises, so you add LDAP support, and disable Google reCAPTCHA. At the same time, the devs need to be able to test parts of the application, so they want to deploy it with some features enabled and others not.

Here’s a matrix with the deployments of this application and the features enabled for each one:

External DB LDAP reCAPTCHA
Community ✔️ ✔️
Enterprise ✔️ ✔️
Dev

(✔️ enabled, ✅: optional)

So, you want to make it easy to deploy your application in any of the above three environments. Here’s how you can do this with Kustomize components: each opt-in feature gets packaged as a component, so that it can be referred to from multiple higher-level overlays.

First, define a place to work:

DEMO_HOME=$(mktemp -d)

Define a common base that has a Deployment and a simple ConfigMap, that is mounted on the application’s container.

BASE=$DEMO_HOME/base
mkdir $BASE
# $BASE/kustomization.yaml
resources:
- deployment.yaml

configMapGenerator:
- name: conf
  literals:
    - main.conf=|
        color=cornflower_blue
        log_level=info
# $BASE/deployment.yaml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: example
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: example
        image: example:1.0
        volumeMounts:
        - name: conf
          mountPath: /etc/config
      volumes:
        - name: conf
          configMap:
            name: conf

Define an external_db component, using kind: Component, that creates a Secret for the DB password and a new entry in the ConfigMap:

EXT_DB=$DEMO_HOME/components/external_db
mkdir -p $EXT_DB
# $EXT_DB/kustomization.yaml
apiVersion: kustomize.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1  # <-- Component notation
kind: Component

secretGenerator:
- name: dbpass
  files:
    - dbpass.txt

patchesStrategicMerge:
  - configmap.yaml

patchesJson6902:
- target:
    group: apps
    version: v1
    kind: Deployment
    name: example
  path: deployment.yaml
# $EXT_DB/deployment.yaml
- op: add
  path: /spec/template/spec/volumes/0
  value:
    name: dbpass
    secret:
      secretName: dbpass
- op: add
  path: /spec/template/spec/containers/0/volumeMounts/0
  value:
    mountPath: /var/run/secrets/db/
    name: dbpass
# $EXT_DB/configmap.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: conf
data:
  db.conf: |
    endpoint=127.0.0.1:1234
    name=app
    user=admin
    pass=/var/run/secrets/db/dbpass.txt
EOF

Define an ldap component, that creates a Secret for the LDAP password and a new entry in the ConfigMap:

LDAP=$DEMO_HOME/components/ldap
mkdir -p $LDAP
# $LDAP/kustomization.yaml
apiVersion: kustomize.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
kind: Component

secretGenerator:
- name: ldappass
  files:
    - ldappass.txt

patchesStrategicMerge:
  - configmap.yaml

patchesJson6902:
- target:
    group: apps
    version: v1
    kind: Deployment
    name: example
  path: deployment.yaml
# $LDAP/deployment.yaml
- op: add
  path: /spec/template/spec/volumes/0
  value:
    name: ldappass
    secret:
      secretName: ldappass
- op: add
  path: /spec/template/spec/containers/0/volumeMounts/0
  value:
    mountPath: /var/run/secrets/ldap/
    name: ldappass
# $LDAP/configmap.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: conf
data:
  ldap.conf: |
    endpoint=ldap://ldap.example.com
    bindDN=cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com
    pass=/var/run/secrets/ldap/ldappass.txt
EOF

Define a recaptcha component, that creates a Secret for the reCAPTCHA site/secret keys and a new entry in the ConfigMap:

RECAPTCHA=$DEMO_HOME/components/recaptcha
mkdir -p $RECAPTCHA
# $RECAPTCHA/kustomization.yaml
apiVersion: kustomize.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
kind: Component

secretGenerator:
- name: recaptcha
  files:
    - site_key.txt
    - secret_key.txt

# Updating the ConfigMap works with generators as well.
configMapGenerator:
- name: conf
  behavior: merge
  literals:
    - recaptcha.conf=|
        enabled=true
        site_key=/var/run/secrets/recaptcha/site_key.txt
        secret_key=/var/run/secrets/recaptcha/secret_key.txt

patchesJson6902:
- target:
    group: apps
    version: v1
    kind: Deployment
    name: example
  path: deployment.yaml
# $RECAPTCHA/deployment.yaml
- op: add
  path: /spec/template/spec/volumes/0
  value:
    name: recaptcha
    secret:
      secretName: recaptcha
- op: add
  path: /spec/template/spec/containers/0/volumeMounts/0
  value:
    mountPath: /var/run/secrets/recaptcha/
    name: recaptcha
EOF

Define a community variant, that bundles the external DB and reCAPTCHA components:

COMMUNITY=$DEMO_HOME/overlays/community
mkdir -p $COMMUNITY

# $COMMUNITY/kustomization.yaml
apiVersion: kustomize.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Kustomization

resources:
  - ../../base

components:
  - ../../components/external_db
  - ../../components/recaptcha
EOF

Define an enterprise overlay, that bundles the external DB and LDAP components:

ENTERPRISE=$DEMO_HOME/overlays/enterprise
mkdir -p $ENTERPRISE
# $ENTERPRISE/kustomization.yaml
apiVersion: kustomize.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Kustomization

resources:
  - ../../base

components:
  - ../../components/external_db
  - ../../components/ldap
EOF

Define a dev overlay, that points to all the components and has LDAP disabled:

DEV=$DEMO_HOME/overlays/dev
mkdir -p $DEV
# $DEV/kustomization.yaml
apiVersion: kustomize.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Kustomization

resources:
  - ../../base

components:
  - ../../components/external_db
  #- ../../components/ldap
  - ../../components/recaptcha
EOF

Now, the workspace has the following directories:

├── base
│   ├── deployment.yaml
│   └── kustomization.yaml
├── components
│   ├── external_db
│   │   ├── configmap.yaml
│   │   ├── dbpass.txt
│   │   ├── deployment.yaml
│   │   └── kustomization.yaml
│   ├── ldap
│   │   ├── configmap.yaml
│   │   ├── deployment.yaml
│   │   ├── kustomization.yaml
│   │   └── ldappass.txt
│   └── recaptcha
│       ├── deployment.yaml
│       ├── kustomization.yaml
│       ├── secret_key.txt
│       └── site_key.txt
└── overlays
    ├── community
    │   └── kustomization.yaml
    ├── dev
    │   └── kustomization.yaml
    └── enterprise
        └── kustomization.yaml

With this structure, you can generate the YAML manifests for each deployment using kustomize build:

kustomize build overlays/community
kustomize build overlays/enterprise
kustomize build overlays/dev

Last modified September 30, 2020: SIG CLI docs - guide changes (d705a6d)